INTRODUCTION



Cape Adare located at latitude 71' 17''S longitude 170' 15''E, is one of the most important places in the human history of Antarctic exploration. A large triangular-shaped shingle cuspate foreland attached to the end of the volcanic Adare Peninsula, has the largest Adelie penguin rookery on the continent.

At Cape Adare on 24 January 1895 an early landing was made from the whaling ship Antarctic. A member of the landing party was a Norwegian living in Australia, named Carsten Borchgrevink. He observed, "On this particular spot, there is ample room for houses, tents and provisions."

Returning to England the 31 year old school teacher began to plan his own expedition. His objective was to organise a company to exploit the extensive guano deposits and to conduct scientific observations. Fortunately the commercial scheme never eventuated but in 1896 Borchgrevink met Sir George Newnes, a publisher of popular magazines. Newnes agreed to donate ~38,000 for an expedition to accurately fix the position of the South Magnetic Pole and to make an attempt to reach the Geographic South Pole in September or October 1899. Newnes only requirement was, the expedition must sail under the British flag.


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